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INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IMPORTANT MOUNTAIN RANGES

 KARAKORAM RANGES:
1. Extends form the Pamir, east of the Gilgist River, 600 km long and the average width 120-140km.
2. Ancient name was Krishnagiri.
3. Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate.
4. Abode of largest glaciers in India.
5. Siachen, Baltora, Biafo, and Hisper all the four of largest glacier are in Karakoram.
6. Highest Peak: K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m)
7. Other important Peak: Gasherbrum or Hidden Peak Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II
8. In the northern limit of Karakoram Range lies Pamir, the Aghil Mountains and the Yarkand River and in the southern limit Rive Indus and its tributary Shyok.

LADDAKH RANGE
1. Situated to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and south or Karakoram, between River Indus and Shyok.
2. Highest Peak: Mt.Rakaposhi (steepest peak in the world)


(A) GREAT HIMALAYA OR HIMADRI

 1. Northern most part of the Himalayan Range is the world’s highest with an average altitude of 6,000m.
 2. include the word’s highest peak, Mt. Everest(8,848 m) , Makalu (8,481m) Mansalu (8,156m), Annapurna(8,078m) and also the Indian peak Kanchenjungs (8,598 m) and Nanga Parbat(8,126m)
3. Include some famous passes- Burzil and Zozila in Kashmir, Shipki La and Bara lapchala in Himachal Pradesh, Thag La, Niti Pass, and Lipulekh in U.p Jelepla and Nathu La in Sikkim.

ZASKAR RANGE
Western part of the main Great Himalayan Mountain is situated to the south of Trans Himalayan. Nanga Parbat (8,126m) Forms the north-west part of Zaskar Range but geographically confined to the Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Garhwal region. Second highest peak of the Himalayan Range in India. Dhalagiri (8,172 m) Eastern continuation of Nanga Parbat and is located in Nepal.

(B) LESSER HIMALAYA

Also known as Himachal-Himalaya which is separated from the Shiwalik Range by Duns.

(I) PIR PANJAL RANGE
Located in Kashmir, Punjab and extends from the Jhelum River to the upper Beas River for over 300km. Separated form the Zaskar Range by the valley of Kashmire (vale of Kashmir)

(II) DHAULADHAR
Southern-most range of the Lower or Lesser Himalaya. Rarely attains elevations higher then 4,000m Continue eastward in to Mahabharat Range.

(C)SIWALIK RANGE
Extends from Jammu & Kashmir (150km wide) to Arunachal Pradesh (8- 15km) over 2400km. Northern limit-Main Boundary thrust which separates Outer Himalaya from the Lesser Himalaya. Its southern limit is Indo Gangetic Plain. Also known as Sub-Himalaya or Outer Himalaya. Youngest part of mountain chain stretching form the Brahmaputra to the Indus. Separated from Lesser Himalaya by Main Boundary Thrust. 

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RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.