Distribution:7.7 lakh km2 (24% of the country’s total area) Formation: Formed due to deposition of alluvium brought by rivers over millions of years. Newer alluvium is called khadar and the old alluvium is called Bhangar Terai Soil: Bhabar infertile soil: Usar Characteristics: Very fertile soil, rich in potash and lime, deficient in humus, nitrogen and phosphorus. Regions&States: Northern plains or river basin: Punjab, Haryana, eastern part of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Assam Valley.
BLACK COTTON SOIL OR REGUR SOIL.
Distribution: 5.18 lakh km2 (16%)
Formation: Formed over Deccan lava, gneiss and granites.
Characteristics: Black in colour due to presence of Fe and Mg. Deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acid. Rich in potash and lime.
Regions&States: It covers lateaus of Maharastra,Sourth Orissa, Northern Karnataka, Parts of
Rajasthan (two districts of Bundi and Tonk)Central and South Tamil Nadu.
Distribution: 5.18 lakh km2 (16%)
Formation: The soil developed on old crystalline rock under moderate to heavy
rainfall. It is in different shads of Red and Yellow.
Characteristics: Red colour due to presence of Fe. Deficient in organic plant material,
phosphorus, nitrogen and lime content. Potash and alumina content are
satisfactory. Acidic like laterite but less leached than laterite soil.
Regions& States: Larger part of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Southern parts
of Maharashtra, Eastern Mp, parts of Orissa and Chotanagpur and Bundelkhand.
Distribution: 1.26 lakh km2
Formation: The Laterite soil is a result of intense leaching due to heavy tropical rains
with alternate wet and dry seasons.
Characteristics: More acidic on higher areas due to presence of Al and Fe. Deficient in
nitrogen, potash, magnesium and phosphoric acid.
Regions & States: Tropical humid areas where rainfall is more than 200 cm e.g., Western
Ghats, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chotanagpur Plateau and slopes of North Eastern
ARID OR DESERT SOIL
Distribution: 1.42 lakh km2
Formation: Sand and wind blown. Weathering due to temperature help in the formation
of these soils. Developed under arid or semiarid conditions in the north western
part of the country.
Characteristics: Deficient in humus and nitrogen, rich in phosphorus, Due to less leaching
mineral content is high.
Regions& States: Punjab, Southern parts of Haryana, Western Rajasthan and Rann of
Kachchh in Gujarat.
Formation: Formed by the deposition or organic matter derived from the forest growth,
Characteristic of soil varies with variation of rocks, ground configuration and
Characteristics: Rich in humus but deficient in potash, phosphorus and like. Most suitable
for plantation crops like tea, coffee etc.,
Region& states: Himalayan region of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh. Also in
Western and Eastern Ghats as well as in some region of Peninsular plateau.
PEATY AND ORGANIC SOIL:
Formation: Developed in hot humid conditions as a result of accumulation of large
amount of organic matter.
Characteristics: Dark and almost black in colour, very strongly acidic and saline.
Region & States: They are confined to depression caused by dried lakes in alluvial and coastal
plain areas and developed under water logged environments. For example, Regions
like Kari in Kerala, T.N., coastal Orissa, W.B. and North Bihar.
RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS
WEST FLOWING RIVER
KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM
THE GODAVARI RIVER SYSTEM
THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM
THE GANGA SYSTEM
INFORMATION ABOUT HIMALAYAN RIVERS