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INDIA- MAJOR SOIL TYPES

ALLUVIAL SOIL
Distribution:7.7 lakh km2 (24% of the country’s total area)  Formation: Formed due to deposition of alluvium brought by rivers over millions of  years. Newer alluvium is called khadar and the old alluvium is called Bhangar Terai Soil: Bhabar infertile soil: Usar  Characteristics: Very fertile soil, rich in potash and lime, deficient in humus, nitrogen and  phosphorus.  Regions&States: Northern plains or river basin: Punjab, Haryana, eastern part of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Assam Valley.
BLACK COTTON SOIL OR REGUR SOIL.
Distribution: 5.18 lakh km2 (16%)
Formation: Formed over Deccan lava, gneiss and granites.
Characteristics: Black in colour due to presence of Fe and Mg. Deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acid. Rich in potash and lime.
Regions&States: It covers lateaus of Maharastra,Sourth Orissa, Northern Karnataka, Parts of
Rajasthan (two districts of Bundi and Tonk)Central and South Tamil Nadu.


RED SOIL
Distribution: 5.18 lakh km2 (16%)
Formation: The soil developed on old crystalline rock under moderate to heavy
rainfall. It is in different shads of Red and Yellow.
Characteristics:  Red colour due to presence of Fe. Deficient in organic plant material,
phosphorus, nitrogen and lime content. Potash and alumina content are
satisfactory. Acidic like laterite but less leached than laterite soil.
Regions& States: Larger part of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Southern parts
of Maharashtra, Eastern Mp, parts of Orissa and Chotanagpur and Bundelkhand.

LATERITE SOIL:
Distribution: 1.26 lakh km2
Formation: The Laterite soil is a result of intense leaching due to heavy tropical rains
with alternate wet and dry seasons.
Characteristics:  More acidic on higher areas due to presence of Al and Fe. Deficient in
nitrogen, potash, magnesium and phosphoric acid.
Regions & States:  Tropical humid areas where rainfall is more than 200 cm e.g., Western
Ghats, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chotanagpur Plateau and slopes of North Eastern
states.

ARID OR DESERT SOIL
Distribution: 1.42 lakh km2
Formation: Sand and wind blown. Weathering due to temperature help in the formation
of these soils. Developed under arid or semiarid conditions in the north western
part of the country.
Characteristics: Deficient in humus and nitrogen, rich in phosphorus, Due to less leaching
mineral content is high.
Regions& States: Punjab, Southern parts of Haryana, Western Rajasthan and Rann of
Kachchh in Gujarat.

MOUNTAIN SOILS
Formation: Formed by the deposition or organic matter derived from the forest growth,
Characteristic of soil varies with variation of rocks, ground configuration and
climate.
Characteristics: Rich in humus but deficient in potash, phosphorus and like. Most suitable
for plantation crops like tea, coffee etc.,
Region& states: Himalayan region of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh. Also in
Western and Eastern Ghats as well as in some region of Peninsular plateau.

PEATY AND ORGANIC SOIL:
Formation: Developed in hot humid conditions as a result of accumulation of large
amount of organic matter.
Characteristics: Dark and almost black in colour, very strongly acidic and saline.
Region & States: They are confined to depression caused by dried lakes in alluvial and coastal
plain areas and developed under water logged environments. For example, Regions
like Kari in Kerala, T.N., coastal Orissa, W.B. and North Bihar.

RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/river-valley-projects.html


WEST FLOWING RIVER
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/west-flowing-river-sabarmati-mahi.html


KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/krishna-river-system-krishna-kaveri.html

THE GODAVARI RIVER SYSTEM
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/the-godavari-river-system.html

THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/the-brahmaputra-system-brahmaputra-or.html

THE GANGA SYSTEM
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/the-ganga-system-ganga-west-bengal.html

INFORMATION ABOUT HIMALAYAN RIVERS
http://indiadisplay.blogspot.com/2013/06/himalayan-rivers-indus-jhelum-chenab.html

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RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.