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THE GANGA SYSTEM : The Ganga, West Bengal, The Yamuna, The Son, Ramganga, Ghagra, Gandak, Himalaya, Kosi, Damodar,

THE GANGA SYSTEM (GANGA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES)

The Ganga:
Formed by two head streams Alaknada and Bhagirathi which join at Devprayag.
Source: Rises in Gangotri glacier of the Great Himalaya. Above Devaprayag it is
called as Bhagirathi and below it is referred to as the Ganga.
Total Length: Of its total length of 2,525 k.m, 1,450 k.m in Bihar and 520 km in
West Bengal.
River Basin: 838,200 sq.km. Largest river basin in India, Covers more than fourth
of the country’s total surface
Information: Left Bank tributaries; Ramganga, Gomati, Ghagra, Gandak, Burhi Gandak,
Kosi. Right Bank tributaries; Yamuna, Son. The Bhagirathi – Hooghly is the
western most distributary of the river. Beyond Frakka it bifurcates itself into
Bhagirathi Hooghly in West Bengal and Padma-Meghna in Bangladesh.


The Yamuna. (Largest and the most important tributary of Gang)
Source: Rises in the Yamunotri glacier which is west of Ganga source.
Total Length: 1,376 km fromits source to Allahabad where it joins Ganga.
River Basin: 3,59,000 sq. km
Information: Important tributaries; Chamba (rises in Mhow in the Vindhya)Sidh.
Betwa and Ken.




The Son
(Right bank tributary of Ganga)
Source: Rises from the Amarkantak Plateau
Total Length: 780 km

River Basin: 71,900 sq,.km
Information: It joins Ganga near Ramnagar.

Ramganga.
Source: Rises in the Kumaun Himalaya near Nanital
Total Length: 690 km
River Basin: 32,800 sq,km
Information: It joins the left bank of Ganga near Chapra (Bihar).

Ghagra.
Source: Rises from east of Gangotri,
Total Length: 1,080 km
River’s Basin: 127, 500 sq,km More than half of its basin is in Nepal.
Information: It joins the left bank of Ganga near Chapra(Bihar).

Gandak:
Source: Rises near the Nepal-China border at an altitude of 7,600m in the Central

Himalaya.
Total Length:425 km(in India)
River Basin:48,500, 9,500 sq.km (in India)
Information: It flows through eastern Nepal, enters Bihar in Champaran district
and turn south east to join the left banh of Ganga near Sonepur.

Kosi.
(formed by the confluence of the Son Kosi, the Arun Kosi and the Tamur Kosi)
Source: Rises from the peak of Nepal Tibet and Sikkim
Total Length: 730km (in India)
River’s Basin:86,900, 21,500 sq, km (in India)
Information: It flows through eastern Nepal, enters Bihar in Saharasa district and
joins the left bank of Ganga below Bhagalpur (Bihar).
The river is notorious for shifting its course and causing floods, thus often termed
as the ‘Sorrow of Bihar.

Damodar.
(Sorrow of Bengal)
Source: Rises in Chota Nagpur plateau in the Plalamau district (Jharkand)
Total Length: 541 km
River’s Basin: 22,000 sq.km
Information: It joins the Bhagirathi Hooghly in West Bengal

RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS

WEST FLOWING RIVER

KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM

THE GODAVARI RIVER SYSTEM

THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM

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RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.