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PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

MAJOR DIVISIONS: WESTERN HIMALAYA
(i) Jammu and Kashmir state – Comparatively cool, arid and semi-arid over a large area. Rains during summer season occurs only over a small area in the southern part.
(ii)Punjab and Kumaun :  Himalaya Region(between Nepal in the east to Jammu and Kashmir in the north west)- Wetter, more densely forested and more thickly populated region than Jammu and Kashmire state. ASSAM REGION-includes Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Assam. (i) Assam Himalaya
(ii) The Brahmaputra or Assam Valley
(iii) The Meghalaya Hills or Shillong plateau including he Garo,chasi, Jaintia and Mikir- It is a part of peninsular plateau and structurally a granitic block.
(iv) The Eastern Highlands- Young fold mountains running from North to South

THE PLAINS OF NORTHERN INDIA
-Rainfall is the main criterion used for dividing this alluvial plain into regions.
(i) The West Bengal Plain-Rice and Jute producing area.
(ii) The West Bengal duars and the Sikkim, Darjeeling, Himalaya- Wetter than West Bengal Plain, semi-evergreen forest and tea plantation.
(iii) The Ganga Plain Comprising alluvial plain of U.P and Bihar- Decrease in the amount of summer
rainfall in the west.
(iv) The Punjab-Haryana Plain Situated to the west of Yamuna and North of arid and semi-arid Rajasthan desert.- Extensive well irrigation coupled with canal-irrigation in the northern districts.
(v)The Rajasthan desert Situated to the west or Aravalli-Region deficient in rainfall. Entirely different in character from the highly plains of the Ganga and Brahmaputra.


THE INDIAN PLATEAU
Deccan Lava Region
Includes plateau area of Maharashtra and neighbouring states of M.P., A.P. and
Karnataka.- Receives annual rainfall between 50cm and 100cm. Region has Black
soil and produces cotton, jowar and groundnut.
The North Western Plateau and the Aravalli Range.
Situated to the north of Deccan lava region.
- Receives less rainfall during summer than the Deccan lava region and is
relatively cooler in winter.

The Karnataka Plateau
Situated to the south of the Deccan lava region-Relatively cooler in summer than
neighbouring areas due to its high elevation.
Telengana and Rayalseema
Situated to the East of Karnataka state – Receives less rainfall than coastal Andhra
Pradesh.

The North Eastern Plateau
Situated to the east of the Deccan lava region and includes interior part of Orissa,
the Jharkhand Plateau and eastern M.P.-Regions very rich in minerals.

THE COASTAL LOWLANDS
- More productive soils , heavier rainfall and better irrigation facilities than
the Indian Plateau.

Eastern Coastal Region
(i) Coastal Plain of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the North.
(ii) Tamil Nadu Region - Receives rainfall during winter also.

Western Coastal Region
(i) Gujarat Region North of Daman
(ii) The Konkani Region between Daman in the north and Goa in the south.-
Largely semi –arid, millet and cotton producing region. Dominated by port and industries of Mumbai.
(iii) Goa and littoral of Karnataka, Kerala. – Plantation and wet crops producing region.

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Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
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River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
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Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.