Thursday, 30 January 2014

IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES OF INDIA

COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY:
The oldest and the larges t organized modern industry of India.
MANUFACTURING CENTRES:
Maharashtra (122mills)
• Mumbai (63 mills), largest centre,
• Other centre: Nagpur, Amaravati, Wardha, Jalgaon, Aurangabad, Pune,
Satara, Scholapur, and Kolhapur.
Gujarat (118 mills)
• Ahmedabad (73 mills), Second largest centre after Mumbai
• Other centres: Porbandar, Rajkot, Vadodra, Surat.
Madhya Pradesh:
• Bhopal, Indore, Dewas, Ujjain, Ratlam, Gwalior, Jabalpur, etc
Tamil Nadu
• Coimbatore. (Most important centre). Other centres – Chennai, Perambur,
Salem, Tirchirapalli, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, etc,
West Bengal
• Kolkata (Most important entre).
• Other centre: Howrah, Serampur, Murshidabad,etc.
Uttar Pradesh
• Kanpur (largest centre). Other centres: Varanasi, Mirzapur, Lucknow, Agra,
Modinagar, Saharanput, etc.
Rajasthan
• Jaipur, Pali, Bhilwar, Kota, Udaipur, Ganganagar.

Tuesday, 4 June 2013

INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IMPORTANT MOUNTAIN RANGES

 KARAKORAM RANGES:
1. Extends form the Pamir, east of the Gilgist River, 600 km long and the average width 120-140km.
2. Ancient name was Krishnagiri.
3. Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate.
4. Abode of largest glaciers in India.
5. Siachen, Baltora, Biafo, and Hisper all the four of largest glacier are in Karakoram.
6. Highest Peak: K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m)
7. Other important Peak: Gasherbrum or Hidden Peak Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II
8. In the northern limit of Karakoram Range lies Pamir, the Aghil Mountains and the Yarkand River and in the southern limit Rive Indus and its tributary Shyok.

LADDAKH RANGE
1. Situated to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and south or Karakoram, between River Indus and Shyok.
2. Highest Peak: Mt.Rakaposhi (steepest peak in the world)

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE
  • Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km
  • Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km
  • Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km
  • Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km

THE PURVANCHAL
  • (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.

PURU NEFA
  • Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.
  •   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.

PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS

Total length:800km Highest peak: Guru Sikhar(1,722m) of the Abu Hills. Extending from the north east to the south-west of India and separates to semi desert regions of Rajasthan from the fertile Udaipur and Jaipur regions. It is and example of relict mountain One of the oldest fold mountains in the world.

VINDHYAN RANGE
A block mountain which separates northern India from the southern mainland. Composed of sandstones, shales and quartzites. South of it, Narmada River flows in the rift valley. Acts as a natural watershed between north and south India.

SATPURA RANGE
Highest peak: Dhupgarh(1,350m) near Panchmarhi. Average elevation: 1,030m above sea level. Extending in east west direction, to the south of Vindhyans. Situated between Narmada and Tapi River. Starting from Rajpipla hills in the west through Mahadeo hill to Maikal range.

MAIKAL RANGE
Eastern part of Satpura system is situated in Madhya Pradesh. Mount Amarkantak is the highest peak
 

THE INDIAN PLATEAU


BUNDELKHAND BHANDER, BAGHEL AND MALWA PLATEAU
These highlands are situated to the north of Narmada rift valley. Bundelkhand Plateau is a part of central highlands and is composed of granite and gneisses. Malwa plateau is an example of dissected lava plateau, which is covered with black soil.

MEGHALAYA PLATEAU
It comprises of Garo, khasi and Haintia Hills. Originally a part of Peninsular plateau. Garo-Rajmahal Gap separates it from the main block of peninsular plateau

CHOTANAGPUR PLATEAU
Highest peak- Parasnath (1,366m) in the Hazaribagh Platean. Situated in the north eastern part of Indian Plateau includes the region of Bihar, adjoining Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
It consists of the Ranchi Plateau in the south, the Hazaribagh Plateau in the north, and the Rajmahal Hills in the northeast. Described as the “Ruhr of India” Pat lands are one of the chief characteristics of Chotanagpur Plateau. Very rich in mineral resources.

IMPORTANT LAGOONS AND LAKES

VEMBNAD LAKE - State: Kerala. Information: Large sized lagoons of Kerala, have fertile alluvial islands, 63 km in length.
KAYALS - State: Kerala. Information: Popularly called back water in Kerala. A chain of lakes which are connected with each other y canal. Peaty soils of backwaters are called Kari in Kerala.
CHILKA LAKE - Maximum length -64km., Maximum breadth- 20km., Average width -150km., State: Orissa. Information: Situated to the south west of the Mahanadi Delta. Enclosed by the sand pit, has an opening which permits sea connection. Largest brackish water lake in Asia.
FRESH WATER LAKE
WULAR LAKE: -State: Jammu and Kashmir.Information: Largest fresh water lake of India
KOLLERU LAKE: - State: Andhra Pradesh. Information: A part of the sea enclosed between the deltas of Godavari and the Mahanadi and has a number of islands in it.
PULICAT LAKE: - State: Andhra Pradesh. Information: Situated on the southern border of Andhra Pradesh. Lagoon formed due to enclosure by sand bar.