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HIMALAYAN RIVERS : INDUS, JHELUM, CHENAB, RAVI, SUTLEJ, BEAS

INFORMATION ABOUT HIMALAYAN RIVERS
THE INDUS SYSTEM (INDUS AND ITS TRIBUTOARIES)


1.INDUS:
(One of the world’s largest river)
Source: Tibet, at an altitude of 5,180 m near Mansarovar Lake.
Total length:2,880km (709km in India)
River Basin: 1,165,00 sq.km (321,290 sq.km in India)
Information: Mountain tributaries; Gilgit Shyok, Skardu, Shigoo.
Plain tributaries: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas.

2. JHELUM:

 (An important river of kashmir and is the main waterway)
Source: Rises in Verinag at the foothills of Pirpranjal.
Total length: 400 km
River Basin: 28,490 sq.km (in India)
Information: Its basin lies between Great Himalaya and Pir Pranjal Range.
It flows through Vale of Kashmir and Wular Lake before entering into Pakistan.



3.CHENAB
(largest of all the Indus tributaries)
Source: Rises in snow covered Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh.
Total length: 1,800 (in India)
River Basin: 26,755 sq.km (in India)
Information: Flows through Chamba state for 160 km in the trough between the Greater
Himalaya and the Pir Panjal.

4.RAVI
Source: Kullu hills of H.P
Total Length: 725 km
River Basin: 5,957( in India)

5. SUTLEJ
(Second largest tributary of Indus)
Source: Rakas Lake, at an altitude of 4,555 m in Tibet
Total Length:1050km (in India)
River Basin: 25,087 sq.km(in India)
Information:
It enters India through Shipki La and flows through Himachal Pradesh and
Punjab before entering into Pakistan.

6. BEAS
Source: Kullu hills at an altitude of 4,000 m
Total Length:470 km( in India)
River Basin:25,900 sq.km (in India)
Information: It joins Stulej near Harike.


RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS
WEST FLOWING RIVER
KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM
THE GODAVARI RIVER SYSTEM
THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM
THE GANGA SYSTEM


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RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.