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GEOLOGY TIME SCALE

HOLOCENE
PLEISTOCENE From upper Pliocene to Plistocene Upliftment of Outer Himalayas(Siwalik). Main Boundary Thrust(MBT)formed.
PLIOCENE From Miocene to Plioceen Main Central Thrust(MCT)formed. Upliftment of Lesser Himalaya(Second Phase)
OLIGOCENE ECOCENE From Ecocene to Oligocene Upliftment of Central Himalaya.
CENOZOIC ERA PALAEOCENE From the Cretaceous to Eocene Collison of Indian and Eurasion plate begins.(Continent continent collision)- Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone formed (ITSZ)formed.
MESOZOIC ERA CRETACEOUS (LATE) Extensive eruption of basalt leading to formation of Deccan Lava Plateau. Enclosure of Tethys which start shrinking. UPPER From Carboniferous to Permian Deposition in three great graben like basins Mahanadi, Damodar and Godavari Known as Gondwana deposits.(Region with rich coal reserves)
PALAEOZOIC ERA LOWER From Cambrian to Carboniferous(Early) Formation conspicuously absent
UPPER PROTEROZOIC Vindhyan synclinedevoid of metalliferous minerals. Vindhyan Mountain – formed of shales, slates, clay and limestone


MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC Satpura, Shillong Plateau Formation and deposition in Cuddapah depression.
EARLY PROTEROZOIC Delhi Aravalli orogeny took place
PRECAMBRIAN CLOSE ARCHEN Dharwar systemcover whole length of Karnataka(region with rich iron ore reserves)
LATE ARCHEAN Peninsular Gneiss and Eastern Ghat formation
MIDDLE ARCHEAN Singhbhum & Keonjhar Orogeny (rich iron orereserves)

RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS

WEST FLOWING RIVER

KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM

THE GODAVARI RIVER SYSTEM

THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM

THE GANGA SYSTEM

INFORMATION ABOUT HIMALAYAN RIVERS

INDIA- MAJOR SOIL TYPES

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS MAJOR DIVISIONS: WESTERN HIMALAYA

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RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.