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PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS

Total length:800km Highest peak: Guru Sikhar(1,722m) of the Abu Hills. Extending from the north east to the south-west of India and separates to semi desert regions of Rajasthan from the fertile Udaipur and Jaipur regions. It is and example of relict mountain One of the oldest fold mountains in the world.

VINDHYAN RANGE
A block mountain which separates northern India from the southern mainland. Composed of sandstones, shales and quartzites. South of it, Narmada River flows in the rift valley. Acts as a natural watershed between north and south India.

SATPURA RANGE
Highest peak: Dhupgarh(1,350m) near Panchmarhi. Average elevation: 1,030m above sea level. Extending in east west direction, to the south of Vindhyans. Situated between Narmada and Tapi River. Starting from Rajpipla hills in the west through Mahadeo hill to Maikal range.

MAIKAL RANGE
Eastern part of Satpura system is situated in Madhya Pradesh. Mount Amarkantak is the highest peak
 

AJANTA RANGE, BALAGHAT RANGE, AND HARISH CHANDRA
RANGE:
Extending in east west direction, are all spurs of Western Ghats forming local watersheds. Kalsubai(1,646m) the highest peak of Western Ghat forming local watersheds.

NILGIRI HILLS
It is the meeting point of Western and Eastern Ghats. Doda Betta(2,637m) is the highest peak of Nilgiri Hills. The hills are separated from southern hills by a gap called Palghat Gap

ANAIMALAI HILLS
Anai Mudi(2,695m) the highest peak of South India is in Anaimalai Hills.

CARDAMON HILLS
It is situated in the extreme south of Peninsular India Formed of gneisses and schists.

RAJMAHAL HILLS
Extends in north south direction and is situated in the northeaster edge of the Chhotanagpur Plateau.

SAHYADRIS(WESTERNGHATS)
Total length: about 1600km Average height:1200m Highest Peak: Kalsubai(1646m) Runs along the western coastal plain from the south of valley of Tapi to Kanya Kumari, the southern most point of mainland India. Region which receives maximum rainfall and is covered with evergreen forest The Western Ghats meet with Eastern Ghats in the Nilgiri hills. Acts as a main watershed of Peninsular rivers.

EASTERN GHATS:

Runs along the eastern coast of India from northern Orissa to the Nilgiri Hills. Characterised by unbroken hills between Mahanadi and Godavari. Mahendragiri is the highest peak of Eastern Ghats.Nallamalli Hills is situated between Krishna and Penneru Rivers.

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RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km
THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.
PURU NEFA Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

DIOMAND MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: 75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.