Tuesday, 4 June 2013

INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IMPORTANT MOUNTAIN RANGES

 KARAKORAM RANGES:
1. Extends form the Pamir, east of the Gilgist River, 600 km long and the average width 120-140km.
2. Ancient name was Krishnagiri.
3. Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate.
4. Abode of largest glaciers in India.
5. Siachen, Baltora, Biafo, and Hisper all the four of largest glacier are in Karakoram.
6. Highest Peak: K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m)
7. Other important Peak: Gasherbrum or Hidden Peak Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II
8. In the northern limit of Karakoram Range lies Pamir, the Aghil Mountains and the Yarkand River and in the southern limit Rive Indus and its tributary Shyok.

LADDAKH RANGE
1. Situated to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and south or Karakoram, between River Indus and Shyok.
2. Highest Peak: Mt.Rakaposhi (steepest peak in the world)

CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:

NAME LOCATION DISTANCE
  • Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km
  • Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km
  • Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km
  • Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km

THE PURVANCHAL
  • (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend. Hills, North Cachar Hills and the Tripura Hills.

PURU NEFA
  • Mishmi Hills The highest range of Purvanchal Hills which is situated in the north-eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.
  •   Patkai Bum A synclinal range extending north south in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA

East-West Extent 2,400 km (3,200 km if the Indus plains are included) Average width:150-300km
1.Largest alluvial tract of the world, extending from the mouth of Indus to the mouth of Ganga between Peninsular plateau and the northern are of the mountains.
2. Alluvial in nature, and are composed of Bhangar (old alluvium), Khadar (new alluvium) in river bed. Bhabar (porous gravel ridden plains at the foot of Himalaya) and Terai (damp thickly forest area, where bhabar stream reappears)

SUBDIVISION OF GREAT PLAINS

THE RAJASTHAN PLAIN
Extent:650km long. Average width:250-300 km wide Thar or Great Indian Desert is the westernmost region of Great Indian Plains in the western Rajasthan. A semi arid plain, lying to the east of Thar desert is known as Rajasthan Bagar. The Luni is the only southwest flowing rivers of this region. The Sambhar(largest), the Kuchaman, and the Didwana are important lakes situated to the north of Luni Basin.

PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS

Total length:800km Highest peak: Guru Sikhar(1,722m) of the Abu Hills. Extending from the north east to the south-west of India and separates to semi desert regions of Rajasthan from the fertile Udaipur and Jaipur regions. It is and example of relict mountain One of the oldest fold mountains in the world.

VINDHYAN RANGE
A block mountain which separates northern India from the southern mainland. Composed of sandstones, shales and quartzites. South of it, Narmada River flows in the rift valley. Acts as a natural watershed between north and south India.

SATPURA RANGE
Highest peak: Dhupgarh(1,350m) near Panchmarhi. Average elevation: 1,030m above sea level. Extending in east west direction, to the south of Vindhyans. Situated between Narmada and Tapi River. Starting from Rajpipla hills in the west through Mahadeo hill to Maikal range.

MAIKAL RANGE
Eastern part of Satpura system is situated in Madhya Pradesh. Mount Amarkantak is the highest peak
 

THE INDIAN PLATEAU


BUNDELKHAND BHANDER, BAGHEL AND MALWA PLATEAU
These highlands are situated to the north of Narmada rift valley. Bundelkhand Plateau is a part of central highlands and is composed of granite and gneisses. Malwa plateau is an example of dissected lava plateau, which is covered with black soil.

MEGHALAYA PLATEAU
It comprises of Garo, khasi and Haintia Hills. Originally a part of Peninsular plateau. Garo-Rajmahal Gap separates it from the main block of peninsular plateau

CHOTANAGPUR PLATEAU
Highest peak- Parasnath (1,366m) in the Hazaribagh Platean. Situated in the north eastern part of Indian Plateau includes the region of Bihar, adjoining Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
It consists of the Ranchi Plateau in the south, the Hazaribagh Plateau in the north, and the Rajmahal Hills in the northeast. Described as the “Ruhr of India” Pat lands are one of the chief characteristics of Chotanagpur Plateau. Very rich in mineral resources.

IMPORTANT LAGOONS AND LAKES

VEMBNAD LAKE - State: Kerala. Information: Large sized lagoons of Kerala, have fertile alluvial islands, 63 km in length.
KAYALS - State: Kerala. Information: Popularly called back water in Kerala. A chain of lakes which are connected with each other y canal. Peaty soils of backwaters are called Kari in Kerala.
CHILKA LAKE - Maximum length -64km., Maximum breadth- 20km., Average width -150km., State: Orissa. Information: Situated to the south west of the Mahanadi Delta. Enclosed by the sand pit, has an opening which permits sea connection. Largest brackish water lake in Asia.
FRESH WATER LAKE
WULAR LAKE: -State: Jammu and Kashmir.Information: Largest fresh water lake of India
KOLLERU LAKE: - State: Andhra Pradesh. Information: A part of the sea enclosed between the deltas of Godavari and the Mahanadi and has a number of islands in it.
PULICAT LAKE: - State: Andhra Pradesh. Information: Situated on the southern border of Andhra Pradesh. Lagoon formed due to enclosure by sand bar.

GEOLOGY TIME SCALE

HOLOCENE
PLEISTOCENE From upper Pliocene to Plistocene Upliftment of Outer Himalayas(Siwalik). Main Boundary Thrust(MBT)formed.
PLIOCENE From Miocene to Plioceen Main Central Thrust(MCT)formed. Upliftment of Lesser Himalaya(Second Phase)
OLIGOCENE ECOCENE From Ecocene to Oligocene Upliftment of Central Himalaya.
CENOZOIC ERA PALAEOCENE From the Cretaceous to Eocene Collison of Indian and Eurasion plate begins.(Continent continent collision)- Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone formed (ITSZ)formed.
MESOZOIC ERA CRETACEOUS (LATE) Extensive eruption of basalt leading to formation of Deccan Lava Plateau. Enclosure of Tethys which start shrinking. UPPER From Carboniferous to Permian Deposition in three great graben like basins Mahanadi, Damodar and Godavari Known as Gondwana deposits.(Region with rich coal reserves)
PALAEOZOIC ERA LOWER From Cambrian to Carboniferous(Early) Formation conspicuously absent
UPPER PROTEROZOIC Vindhyan synclinedevoid of metalliferous minerals. Vindhyan Mountain – formed of shales, slates, clay and limestone

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

MAJOR DIVISIONS: WESTERN HIMALAYA
(i) Jammu and Kashmir state – Comparatively cool, arid and semi-arid over a large area. Rains during summer season occurs only over a small area in the southern part.
(ii)Punjab and Kumaun :  Himalaya Region(between Nepal in the east to Jammu and Kashmir in the north west)- Wetter, more densely forested and more thickly populated region than Jammu and Kashmire state. ASSAM REGION-includes Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Assam. (i) Assam Himalaya
(ii) The Brahmaputra or Assam Valley
(iii) The Meghalaya Hills or Shillong plateau including he Garo,chasi, Jaintia and Mikir- It is a part of peninsular plateau and structurally a granitic block.
(iv) The Eastern Highlands- Young fold mountains running from North to South

THE PLAINS OF NORTHERN INDIA
-Rainfall is the main criterion used for dividing this alluvial plain into regions.
(i) The West Bengal Plain-Rice and Jute producing area.
(ii) The West Bengal duars and the Sikkim, Darjeeling, Himalaya- Wetter than West Bengal Plain, semi-evergreen forest and tea plantation.
(iii) The Ganga Plain Comprising alluvial plain of U.P and Bihar- Decrease in the amount of summer
rainfall in the west.
(iv) The Punjab-Haryana Plain Situated to the west of Yamuna and North of arid and semi-arid Rajasthan desert.- Extensive well irrigation coupled with canal-irrigation in the northern districts.
(v)The Rajasthan desert Situated to the west or Aravalli-Region deficient in rainfall. Entirely different in character from the highly plains of the Ganga and Brahmaputra.

INDIA- MAJOR SOIL TYPES

ALLUVIAL SOIL
Distribution:7.7 lakh km2 (24% of the country’s total area)  Formation: Formed due to deposition of alluvium brought by rivers over millions of  years. Newer alluvium is called khadar and the old alluvium is called Bhangar Terai Soil: Bhabar infertile soil: Usar  Characteristics: Very fertile soil, rich in potash and lime, deficient in humus, nitrogen and  phosphorus.  Regions&States: Northern plains or river basin: Punjab, Haryana, eastern part of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Assam Valley.
BLACK COTTON SOIL OR REGUR SOIL.
Distribution: 5.18 lakh km2 (16%)
Formation: Formed over Deccan lava, gneiss and granites.
Characteristics: Black in colour due to presence of Fe and Mg. Deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acid. Rich in potash and lime.
Regions&States: It covers lateaus of Maharastra,Sourth Orissa, Northern Karnataka, Parts of
Rajasthan (two districts of Bundi and Tonk)Central and South Tamil Nadu.

MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL

AREA OF HEAVY RAINFALL
Rainfall between 200- 400 cm  The Arabian Sea branch of south west monsoon cause rainfall all along the  western Ghats and Western coastal regions from June to September. In North East India, the Bay of Bengal branch of monsoonal winds which causes monsoon in the southern hills of Shillong Plateau, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills (Meghalaya) and other states.
In These regions Orographic features play an important role because the moisture laden monsoon winds strike against physical barriers the like mountains, to cause heavy rainfall.
AREA OF MODERATE RAINFALL
Rainfall between 100 – 200 cm The average rainfall over North Indian Plain generally remains between 100 to 200 cm. Other areas of moderate rainfall are northeastern parts of Peninsular
India, highlands of Central India, and Tamil Nadu.

Sunday, 2 June 2013

HIMALAYAN RIVERS : INDUS, JHELUM, CHENAB, RAVI, SUTLEJ, BEAS

INFORMATION ABOUT HIMALAYAN RIVERS
THE INDUS SYSTEM (INDUS AND ITS TRIBUTOARIES)


1.INDUS:
(One of the world’s largest river)
Source: Tibet, at an altitude of 5,180 m near Mansarovar Lake.
Total length:2,880km (709km in India)
River Basin: 1,165,00 sq.km (321,290 sq.km in India)
Information: Mountain tributaries; Gilgit Shyok, Skardu, Shigoo.
Plain tributaries: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas.

2. JHELUM:

 (An important river of kashmir and is the main waterway)
Source: Rises in Verinag at the foothills of Pirpranjal.
Total length: 400 km
River Basin: 28,490 sq.km (in India)
Information: Its basin lies between Great Himalaya and Pir Pranjal Range.
It flows through Vale of Kashmir and Wular Lake before entering into Pakistan.

THE GANGA SYSTEM : The Ganga, West Bengal, The Yamuna, The Son, Ramganga, Ghagra, Gandak, Himalaya, Kosi, Damodar,

THE GANGA SYSTEM (GANGA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES)

The Ganga:
Formed by two head streams Alaknada and Bhagirathi which join at Devprayag.
Source: Rises in Gangotri glacier of the Great Himalaya. Above Devaprayag it is
called as Bhagirathi and below it is referred to as the Ganga.
Total Length: Of its total length of 2,525 k.m, 1,450 k.m in Bihar and 520 km in
West Bengal.
River Basin: 838,200 sq.km. Largest river basin in India, Covers more than fourth
of the country’s total surface
Information: Left Bank tributaries; Ramganga, Gomati, Ghagra, Gandak, Burhi Gandak,
Kosi. Right Bank tributaries; Yamuna, Son. The Bhagirathi – Hooghly is the
western most distributary of the river. Beyond Frakka it bifurcates itself into
Bhagirathi Hooghly in West Bengal and Padma-Meghna in Bangladesh.


The Yamuna. (Largest and the most important tributary of Gang)
Source: Rises in the Yamunotri glacier which is west of Ganga source.
Total Length: 1,376 km fromits source to Allahabad where it joins Ganga.
River Basin: 3,59,000 sq. km
Information: Important tributaries; Chamba (rises in Mhow in the Vindhya)Sidh.
Betwa and Ken.


THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM : Brahmaputra or Tsangpo, PENINSULAR RIVERS

THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM
(BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES)


Brahmaputra or Tsangpo (Tibet)
Source: Rises in the Chemayungdung glacier in the Kailash Range and Mariam La
pass separates it from Mansarovar Lake.
Total Length: 2,900 km one of the longest rivers of the world.
River’s Basin: 240,000 sq,km
Information: Important tributaries: Subansiri Kameng, Dhansiri, Dilhang, Lohit,
Tista, Torsa. Manas; Burhi Dihing, etc. It flows through Tibet, India and
Bangladesh and forms the large delta of the world along with Ganga.

THE GODAVARI RIVER SYSTEM

(GODAVARI AND ITS TRIBUTARIES)
Godavari:
Source: Trimbak plateau of north Sahyadri near Nasik (Maharashtra)
Length: 1465 (longest river of Peninsular India)
River’s Basin: 312,812 half of which lies in Maharashtra and also in Andhra
Pradesh ,M.P., Orissa, and Karnataka.
Information: Largest river system of the Peninsular India and is next only to the
Ganga system in India. Left bank tributaries; Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga,
Indravati and Sabri Right Bank tributaries: Manjra.

KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM : Krishna, Kaveri

KRISHNA RIVER SYSTEM
(KRISHNA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES)

Krishna
(Second largest east flowing river of the Peninsula)
Source: North of Mahabaleshwar in the Western Ghats.
Length: Flows for a distance of 1,400 km to the Bay of Bengal
River’s Basin: 258,948 sq.km. Lies in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and
Maharashtra.
Information: Important tributaries: Bhima, Tungabhadra, Ghatprbha, Malaprabha,
Musi and Koyna.

Kaveri
Source: Rises in the Brahmgiri Range of Western Ghats.
Length: 800km
River’s Basin: 87,900 sq.km.- Shared by Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.
Information: Left bank tributaries: Herangi, Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, etc.
Right bank tributaries: Kabani, Bhavani and Amravati etc.

WEST FLOWING RIVER : Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapi or Tapi

Sabarmati:
Source: Mewar hills in Aravalli Range.
Length: 320km
River’s Basin: 21,674 sq. km. Shared by Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Information:
Important tributaries: Hathmati, Sedhi, Wakul, etc.

Mahi
Source: Vindhya Range at an altitude of 500 m.
Length: 533km
River’s Basin:34,862sq.km
Information: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat share the river basin.

RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS : Bhakra dam, Thein Dam, Salal, Sharda Sahayak, Ramganga multipurpose, Banasagar, Damodar Valley multipurpose, Mayr kashi, Mayur Kashi, Poochampad, Jaykawadi, Upper Krishna, Tunghbhadra multipurpose, Ghat Prabha, Malprabha, Bhima Mettur, Kundah, Chambal, Kakrapara, Sardar Sarovar, Tawa, Mahi, Matatila

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.
 
Bhakra dam: One of highest gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P) is a reservoir.
River: Sutlej(A tributary of Indus)
State:Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Purpose: Irrigation, Hydro electricity.

Thein Dam Project:

River: Ravi ( A tributary of Indus)
State: Punjab
Purpose: Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project:
River: Chenab (A tributary of Indus)
State: Jammu and kashmir
Purpose: Part of the prgramme of cascade development for irrigation

FOOD CROPS DISTRIBUTION : RICE (KHARIF CROP,) WHEAT (RABI CROP), MILLETS, BARLEY

RICE (KHARIF CROP)
Conditions Required
Temperature: not below 21o C
Rainfall: More than 125cm
Soil: Clayey loam best suited
Distribution (in order of Production)
1. West Bengal 2. U P 3. Andhra Pradesh 4. Punjab 5. Tamil Nadu 6. MP 7. Orissa 8. Bihar 9. Assam 10. Karnataka 11. Maharashtra 12. Haryana 13. Kerala

WHEAT (RABI CROP)
Conditions Required
Temperature: 10 – 15o C (winder) 21o - 26o C (Summer)
Rainfall: 75cm -100cm (moderate)
Soil: Well drained fertile, friable loams, and clay loams
Distribution (In order of Production)
1. Uttar Pradesh 2. Punjab 3. Haryana 4. Madhya Pradesh 5. Rajasthan 6. Bihar 7. Gujarat 8. Maharashtra

CASH CROPS : COTTON, JUTE, SUGAR CANE, TOBACCO

COTTON
Conditions Required
Kharif crop of tropical and subtropical areas.
Temperature : 21o - 30o C but not below 21o C.
210 frost free days.
Rainfall: 50 – 100cm or irrigation facility.
Soil: Deep black soil (regur), even grows in alluvial soils and laterite soils.
Distribution ( In order of Production) 1. Punjab 2. Maharashtra 3. Gujarat 4. Haryana 5. Andhra Pradesh 6. Rajasthan 7. Karnataka 8. Tamil Nadu 9. Madhya Pradesh

JUTE
Condition Required
Second important fibre crop of India, crop of hot and humid climate.
Temperature: 24o - 35o C
Rainfall: heavy rainfall of 120 – 150 cm with 80 – 90 percent of relative humidity.
Soil: light sandy or clayey loams.
Distribution ( In order of Production) 1. West Bengal (70 percent of the production, over 60 percent of the area) 2. Bihar 3. Assam 4. Orissa

PLANTATION CROPS

TEA
Condition Required
Tropical and subtropical plant, which thrives well in hot and humid climate.
Temperature: 20o - 30o C
Rainfall: 150 – 300cm (well distributed)
Soil: forest soil rich in humus and iron content is the best suited.
Distribution ( In order of Production)
1. Assam (the Brahmaputra valley, Soorma valley)
2. West Bengal (the Duars, Darjeeling)
3. Tamil Nadu (highest yield per hectare)
4. Kerala (Kottayam, Kollam and Tiruvananthapuram district).
Other areas of minor production : (a) Tripura  (b) Karnataka  (c) Uttar Pradesh (d) Himachal Pradesh (Kangra valley)

COFFEE
Condition Required
Crops of hot and humid climate
Temperature: 15o - 28o C but does not tolerate frost.
Rainfall: 150 – 250cm
Soil: well drained rich friable loams with rich in humus, iron and calcium.
Distribution (In order of Production)
1. Karnataka (80 percent of total coffee production)
2. Kerala (13 percent of total production)
3. Tamil Nadu

NON METALLIC MINERALS MICA, ASBESTOS, GYPSUM, LIMESTONE, DOLOMITE, ATOMIC MINERALS

  • DIOMAND
MICA: (Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry.
Distribution: Bihar – Gaya, Hazaribagh (now in Jharkhand), (Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh – Nellore.
Rajasthan – Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
  • LIME STONE:
75% used in cement industry 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry.
Distribution:  
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh – Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka – Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan – Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat – Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

MANUFACTURING CENTERS OF INDIA


PUNJAB (257 mills)
• Dhari (largest centre).
• Other centres: Amristsar, Ludhianan and Patiala
MAHARASHTRA (31 mills)
• Mumbai (industry based on imported wool)
• Other centres:Jalgaon, Ambernath.
UTTAR PRADESH
• Kanpur(Largest Woollen Textile centre in the state)
• Other centres: Modinagar, Allahabad, Varanai and Mirzapur.
GUJARAT
• Jamnagar, Kalol, Vadodara.
Other important states:
Karnataka : Bangalore, Bellary Tamil Nadu: Chennai, Salem
Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Himachal Pradesh: Kullu
West Bengal: Kokata.